false chamomile edible
Two non-native insects have been released to control field bindweed with minimal success to date in North America. Cultural. Once the plant is consumed, animals become overly sensitive to sunlight, which results in dermatitis, an inflammation of the mucus membranes causing itching, swelling, blisters and open sores. syn. Reasons for the increase in milkweed densities in cropland include spread by the extensive root system, farmers using less tillage, several years of high rainfall and tolerance to most commonly used herbicides. Musk thistle is the most common biennial invasive thistle in North Dakota. Research Institution. Rhopalmyia tripleurospermi, the scentless chamomile gall midge, forms a gall on the plant, which acts as a nutrient sink that can interrupt and stunt the growth of the plant. Canada thistle has small (3/4 inch diameter), compact flower heads that appear on the upper stems. Leaves and stems are covered with fine, silky hairs that give the plant a grayish appearance. Although the root crown expands and produces more shoots each year, the maximum growth of the root crown diameter is limited to about 20 inches. Root bud development can occur nearly anytime during the growing season, but is greatest when soil temperatures are warm, air temperatures are cool and the photoperiod shortens to 13 hours. - chamomile plant stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Plumeless thistle will not survive tillage operations used in cropland. Control is greatest when applied to thistle at the early bud growth stage (early summer) or in the fall to plants in the rosette form. Also, herbicides can be applied to individual plants selectively in landscape situations to prevent killing desirable plants. The rosettes of bull thistle are very pubescent with deeply lobed leaves and dark purple ribs. Halogeton contains soluble sodium oxalates that are poisonous to sheep and cattle. Grazing alone will not eradicate leafy spurge but will reduce the infestation, slow the spread of the weed and allow grasses to be grazed by cattle and horses. Bull thistle flowers from July to September, which is somewhat later than other thistles in the region. In general, the knapweed infestations are small enough that herbicide and hand removal are the best and most cost-effective treatments in North Dakota. Female flower Male flower, Canada thistle was introduced in North America as a seed contaminant in both French and British colonies. Palmer amaranth has developed resistance to ALS, HPPD and PPO inhibitors, dinitroanilines triazines and glyphosate, leaving few options for control in cropland. If plants are found, they should be removed by hand and destroyed. The seed are dark purple to brown, ribbed and attached to a pappus that will carry them in the wind or on animals. Exploration and evaluation of biocontrol agents for Russian knapweed are in progress. The flowers are most often pink or purple, but there is a white-flowered form, f. album Farwell. In addition, the release area needs to be well-drained and not subject to frequent prolonged flooding or standing water, which will kill the larvae. Halogeton is an annual weed in the goosefoot family and grows from a only a few inches to more than 24 inches tall, depending on location and moisture. Hand-pulling or digging may provide control for small infestations of common tansy if the entire root system is removed. Biological. These herbicides should be applied when the plant is at least 12 inches tall and actively growing. Common milkweed can be aggressive in cropland areas given the right conditions. Canada thistle has the dubious distinction of being one of three weeds listed in 1885 by Dakota Territory as required of “every person” to be destroyed. There are many reason to praise the mild spiderwort. Leafy spurge seeds may germinate to re-establish infestations where total control of leafy spurge tops and roots has been achieved. Spotted knapweed flower with black bracts. Then the areas should be treated with a herbicide to prevent reinfestation from seedlings. Narrowleaf hawksbeard is best controlled in late fall or very early spring with herbicides. The blue-green leaves are small and sausage-shaped, and have a short bristle or spine at the end. Dame’s rocket is an escaped ornamental from Eurasia and most often found along roads, streams, near woods and in thickets. Orange hawkweed may have allelopathic effects on neighboring plants. However, infestations have been increasing rapidly in the north-central states. This is the reason why field bindweed is harder to control in the more semiarid area of central and western North Dakota than in the eastern region. Field bindweed can be spread by seed, root fragments carried by farm implements, infested soil adhering to the roots of nursery stock, root growth from infested areas and by animals. The toadflax species are aggressive and will displace forage in pastureland and native species in wildland. Can you provide links to the studies that show âCalvacinâ¦is known to prevent tumors when taken on a regular basisâ? Glands found on the plant produce oils that contain hypericin, a phototoxin. Chemical. The stems are winged and very branched, giving the plant a candelabrum appearance. The root system is capable of producing many new shoots if the top growth is removed by mechanical control methods or fire. Also, no differences in Canada thistle control occurred when herbicides were used alone or combined with a prescribed burn. However, wild buckwheat is an annual rather than a perennial and has a very small (about 1/8 inch diameter) greenish-white flower. This plant has been listed as a noxious weed in nearby states of Colorado and Wisconsin. Narrowleaf hawksbeard commonly is found in most of Canada, including the neighboring provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, where it is listed as a noxious weed. Wavyleaf thistle tends to flower from July to September, often a week or two earlier than Flodman thistle. Methods to identify and control each weed are discussed and why the plant is a concern in the state is explained. Absinth wormwood is a member of the sagebrush family, which is easily recognized by the strong sage odor. Downy brome is an annual or winter annual grass that can range in height from 4 to 30 inches. This feeding both destroys root tissue directly and causes the plant to be more susceptible to other methods of control, such as herbicides and infection from soil borne pathogens. Remember the rhyme: Leaves of three — let it be! Your email address will not be published. Both species grow 2 to 4 feet tall and have large opposite leaves 3 to 5 inches wide and 6 to 10 inches long, which are covered with fine pubescence. Escort (metsulfuron) is very effective for controlling houndstongue and can be applied throughout the growing season. In larger infestations, lateral roots of older plants left behind can give rise to new plants. Seedlings that emerge in summer after tillage or previous herbicide applications will not bolt but remain in the rosette stage. Mechanical. Flodman thistle is a native species found from Saskatchewan and Manitoba to Iowa and Colorado. Nevski] and Luna pubescent wheatgrass [Agropyron trichophorum (Link) Richter], Rebound smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) Yellow starthistle has a long tap root similar to spotted knapweed or dandelion. The plant commonly grows 3 to 5 feet tall at maturity. Saltcedar became established in North Dakota as escapes from ornamental plantings or from seed floating along rivers. Palmer amaranth has developed resistance to multiple classes of herbicides and become one of the most difficult to control weeds in croplands of the Midwest and northern Great Plains. Flowering generally occurs from July to September. Chemical. Burdock is a taprooted biennial that reproduces only by seed. Both plants have very finely divided leaves from 0.75 to 2.3 inches long, but scentless chamomile generally has more leaves and appears more bushy than false chamomile. Kochia flowers are inconspicuous and greenish and form short, dense, terminal, bracted spikes. Hoary cress has both basal and stem leaves. floral pattern of white chamomile daisy flowers on yellow background. Common mullein will not survive cultivation. Kochia has become resistant to several commonly used herbicides. Seedlings emerging in the fall often overwinter as a rosette of leaves, resuming growth again in the spring. Stevens. Chemical. Plateau (imazapic) applied in the fall will control downy brome in pasture and rangeland. Greene]. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles. Several other members of the “daisy” family, including pineapple-weed (Matricaria discoidea DC. Flea beetles were least productive in fine sand to loamy fine sand soils with an organic matter content of 1 percent to 3 percent. Flowers of the plant are pink, lavender, purple or white and 0.75 inch across. Successful control of field bindweed requires a long-term management program. Flowers of the plant are white, four-petaled and borne on slender stalks. Field bindweed produces numerous seed in growing seasons with high temperatures and low rainfall and humidity. Biological. The knapweeds are one of the most rapidly spreading invasive species in the western U.S. Knapweeds already infest more acreage than leafy spurge in Montana and Minnesota, and have been found in more than 25 counties in North Dakota. County Listed Noxious Weed: Common milkweed only. Generally, less than 6 inches of the root system is destroyed regardless if the control method is biological, chemical or cultural. It causes scours and weakness in cattle and may result in death. However, of the native thistles found in the region, Flodman thistle is one that can form dense colonies, especially in dry years. Several biological agents have been introduced into the United States for St. Johnswort control since the mid-1940s. Chemical. First, the flowers have rounded bracts with transparent tips that are quite different in appearance than the dark bracts of spotted and diffuse knapweed. floral background. Cultural. St. Johnswort is sold as an antidepressant, often in the form of tea. Palmer amaranth is a member of the pigweed family and is native to the southwestern and southcentral U.S. as far south as northwestern Mexico and as far north as southern Nebraska. Both root types can produce adventitious buds that develop into rhizomes and new shoots. Flodman thistle is a deep-rooted perennial and usually grows 3 to 4 feet tall. This requires use of systemic (movement throughout the plant) herbicides. The second season, the plant bolts and a single, stiff, erect stem of 2 to 6 feet tall emerges. Cultivation or hand-digging the rosette prior to bolting will kill the plant and prevent seed-set. Stem color also can differ from green to lavender. Flower heads are arranged in a flat-topped cluster. However, do not expect these insects alone to reduce a Canada thistle infestation. Woolly leaves complicate control by discouraging grazers and obstructing herbicide contact. Black henbane is native to Europe and was cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental plant. Whitetop contains glucosinolates that can be toxic to cattle but livestock only graze hoary cress in the spring if more palatable forage is not available. Spotted knapweed has stiff, black-tipped bracts while diffuse knapweed has a rigid terminal spine about one-third of an inch long with four to five pairs of shorter, lateral spines (crablike). No biocontrol agents for false chamomile are permitted in the U.S. This flea beetle has established at only a few sites in the state and occurs at densities too low to be effective. Scentless False Mayweed, also known by synonyms Matricaria perforata and Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. Livestock generally will not graze absinth wormwood except in early spring. It also is the only perennial of the noxious knapweeds and is the most difficult to control. Flowering starts in early to mid-July, similar to Canada thistle. Most yellow starthistle seeds are plumed and disperse when mature. Chemical. Houndstongue commonly is found in disturbed areas, including roadsides, trails, and in pasture and woodlands following soil disturbance or overgrazing. Cultural. Plumeless thistle first was introduced into North America in the 1870s along the East Coast as a contaminant in ship ballast. Stems are erect, slender and glabrous or slightly hairy. Arsenal (imazapyr) is the most widely used herbicide to control saltcedar. The first legislation to control the weed was passed by Vermont in 1795. âOne table-spoonful to be taken at bed time,â Beatrix Potter intoned in The Tale of Peter Rabbit . There are a few other plants that may be called chamomile, such as Moroccan chamomile (Anthemis mixta), Cape chamomile (Eriocephalus punctulatus) and Pineappleweed (Matricaria discoidea). 1 The flowers â¦ A coordinated integrated program of biological, chemical and cultural methods directly led to the first-ever reports of a decline in leafy spurge infestation in the state in the 1990s. pattern of flower buds. Garlon (triclopyr) has been effective when applied in the spring or late fall. The burs can be problematic for hikers, hunters and fishermen and also to their pets. If the plant is not flowering, search for last season’s flower stalk and identify the plant based on the flower bracts. The seeds are oval or round at one end, narrow to a blunt point at the other and reddish-brown. A single downy brome plant can be comprised of one or two tillers or as many as 20 tillers. Some perennial grass species that have competed effectively to provide leafy spurge control include: Bozoisky Russian wildrye [Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Cut foliage anytime for scenting purposes. The plant is a host to powdery mildew and root rot that can spread to economically important plants. One plant is capable of producing 15,000 to 60,000 seeds. To date, 10 species of insects have been released in North Dakota for control of leafy spurge, and six have become established. Mowing can reduce seed production if conducted during the bud stage; however, plants are able to regrow from rootstock. In addition, unpleasant tasting milk may result when dairy cattle graze the leaves of common tansy. Perennial and marsh sowthistle can displace native plant communities by invading disturbed areas and undisturbed natural habitats. The daisy-like flowers have yellow centers and white ray petals making this herb attractive enough for the flower garden! Pick them once theyâre uniformly ripe (orange or red, depending on the variety). Hand-pulling can be an effective control method in small infestations of chamomile. The plant resembles phlox, but has four petals, not five. In general, small infestations of a few plants can be controlled by digging, especially when plants are only a few years old. Although narrowleaf hawksbeard can be found as far south as New Mexico and north to Alaska, the weed is primarily problematic in the northern tier of U.S. states and Canadian Prairie Provinces. Livestock generally will not graze Russian knapweed. Common Name(s): Pineapple Weed, Street Weed, False Chamomile ~ Latin name: Matricaria matricariodes ~ Spanish name: Hierba de piña Pineapple Weed is a low growing plant with fine, feathered leaves, and smells of pineapple when crushed. The seed capsule is two-celled and contains many very small seeds (1 millimeter long or less). Many formulations of glyphosate are sold but only those labeled for aquatic use can be applied in or near water. Edible Dried Flowers - Dried Petals - Tincture - Herbal Tea - Cake Decor - Coctail Garnishes - Quality Herbs Comprehensive selection of Edible Flowers and Edible Petals on the market. The stems of Flodman thistle can be peeled and eaten and were part of the Native American diet. Each stem terminates in bright yellow flowers with needlelike straw-colored bracts often up to 2 inches long. Fall treatment allows more time for herbicide application than in the spring and thistle control is generally best with fall treatments. Musk thistle is native in southern Europe and western Asia and was introduced into North America in the early 1900s. Halogeton is an early invader of disturbed sites. A root weevil, Mogulones crucifer, has been released for control of houndstongue in Canada. Avoid overgrazing an area and reseed disturbed sites to native grasses and forbs to prevent halogeton from becoming established. The Canada thistle bud weevil Larinus planus was an accidental introduction into North America and is not permitted for distribution. When purple loosestrife replaces native vegetation, it also can displace wildlife. The seed generally germinates in the summer and fall, and the plant overwinters as a rosette. Basal leaves have scattered to dense pubescence, are irregularly toothed to entire and taper to a short stalk that attaches to the crown of the plant near the ground. However, since the largest infestations in North Dakota are in urban areas, mosquito control programs have kept these insects from becoming well established. An established market exists for milkweed seed floss as a nonallergenic fill to replace imported duck and goose down in comforters and for seed sales in prairie restorations and butterfly gardens. Halogeton photos courtesy of Blake Schaan, North Dakota Department of Agriculture, Bismarck, N.D. Hoary cress photos from Richard Old, XID Services Inc. Russian knapweed bracts courtesy of Steve Dewey, formerly of Utah State University. Even just smelling the flowers can cause headaches and nausea in some people. Both contain latex and grow from 1.5 to 6 feet in height. False chamomile (aka German chamomile) and scentless chamomile are members of the aster family and have flowers that resemble the common daisy. Herbicides that control Canada thistle in noncropland include products that contain clopyralid (various), Tordon (picloram), dicamba (various) dicamba plus diflufenzopyr (Overdrive), Method (aminocyclopyrachlor) and Milestone (aminopyralid). False chamomile was a candidate for the North Dakota state noxious weed list in the late 1970s and early 1980s because the weed was spreading fast in cropland, especially in the north-central region of the state. For instance, it infested four southern Iowa counties in 2016 but was found statewide in more than a third of the counties one year later. Biological. For example, leaf shape, head structure, and the number and size of spines can differ with ecotypes. Common burdock has been used as a medicinal herb; however, the plant has been listed as a poisonous plant due to its diuretic effects. These insects first were introduced into North Dakota in the early 1970s. Cattle are not likely to eat enough to be poisoned unless feed is short. Common tansy is an aggressive plant that can form dense vegetative colonies on disturbed sites and generally is found on roadsides, fence rows, pastures, vacant lands, stream bank, and waste areas. Chemical. The plant commonly is found in cultivated areas, ditches, meadows, waste areas, sloughs, woods, lawns, roadsides, beaches, along rivers and lake shores. Preharvest and fall-applied treatments provide the most effective long-term control. Chemical. This persistent weed often is found in southwestern North Dakota, but increasingly infestations have been found statewide. In the early morning and evening, moisture with high salt content is exuded from the foliage, causing the soil to become saline. Digging can provide control for small infestations of hoary cress if the entire root system is removed. Student Focused. The seeds can germinate in 10 to 15 days and plants grow rapidly. Herbicides can be effective but require repeated treatments at high rates. and (Linaria vulgaris Mill. Glyphosate (various) can be used as a spot-treatment for small infestations. Kochia is palatable to livestock and has good forage quality when grazed early in the season. Each lobe has one to three very sharp marginal spines. The flowers are found in the leaf axils, greenish and not showey. Wavyleaf thistle is a larger plant than Flodman thistle. During wet years, the weed has spread rapidly throughout the black and gray soil zones of Saskatchewan. No biological control agents or pathogens are available for this weed. Much of the spread of Palmer amaranth in neighboring states was due to planting infested seed. The plant is able to spread to new areas by seeds that are found within burs of the plant that cling to hair, fur or clothing of passing animals or people. Be vigilant in scouting and removing even a single Palmer amaranth plant. The plant is deciduous and very hardy, and horticultural varieties are advertised to grow “in sun or shade, and in wet or dry areas” from USDA hardiness zones 2 to 7. The painted lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) can be a very effective biological control agent but only on an intermittent basis. Yellow starthistle reproduces (and thus spreads) only by seed. Established field bindweed is difficult to control. Leaf size and shape are variable, but generally the leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, smooth and shaped like an arrowhead. Monarch butterfly larvae feed heavily on milkweed and often remove a majority of the leaves on a plant. Although it grows best under moist conditions as most thistles do, it can survive under drought conditions, which gives it a competitive advantage on semiarid rangeland. Bull thistle flower heads usually are found singularly at the end of each stem branch. Palmer amaranth spreads from region to region as a contaminant in seed, livestock feed and hay. Stems of the plant are erect and spreading, much branched from the base and usually soft-hairy, but occasionally smooth. Mowing and burning have been ineffective for reducing leafy spurge infestations, but may result in uniform regrowth that allows a more timely herbicide treatment. Chaparral (aminopyralid plus metsulfuron) works well when infestations of common tansy also include thistle species. C. A. Chamomile has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years to calm anxiety and settle stomachs. As plant stress increases, herbicide uptake and translocation decreases, which in turn decreases herbicide performance. Toadflax flowers from late June through August in North Dakota and single plants may produce more than 500,000 seeds that are dispersed by wind, rain, wildlife, and movement of forage and livestock. Grazing following grass establishment should be limited and conducted at the proper growth stage of the grasses or leafy spurge will re-infest the seeded area rapidly. An effective control program should prevent seed production, kill roots and root buds, and prevent infestation by seedlings. Black henbane plant, rosette and pineapple-shaped fruit courtesy of Weeds of the West, Tom Whitson, editor. The plant is not palatable when green but may be consumed in toxic quantities in late summer, fall and winter. Fatal liver disease in horses occurred following two weeks of feeding hay with as little as 6 percent houndstongue. The leaves are deeply lobed, narrower than musk thistle and very pubescent underneath. The plant’s growth is generally too compact to offer cover, and cover may be as crucial to wildlife as food. The roots of a single plant can extend 10 feet and give rise to daughter plants every few inches. Land Grant. The seeds are extremely tiny and similar in size and color to pepper. leaf-feeding beetles have been most successful. Also known as German chamomile and Hungarian chamomile. Prevention is the best method to keep houndstongue from invading North Dakota. Basal leaves die off as the plant matures, which can help distinguish this plant from common dandelion or annual sowthistle. Cultivation is the major factor for the spread of the plant because root fragments that are left behind can produce new plants. Glyphosate (various) will suppress milkweed temporarily in cropland while Express (tribenuron) can be applied with 2,4-D plus dicamba for spot treatment. A foliage feeding moth, Calophasie lunula, was introduced in the U.S. in 1968 but has had little effect on controlling yellow toadflax. Generally, flea beetles have not been very successful in controlling leafy spurge growing along waterways, in shaded areas or in very sandy soil. Seeds generally germinate in late fall but germination can occur anytime throughout the year. False chamomile photos from Richard Old, XID Services Inc. Line drawings are from USDA-NRCS PLANTS data base. Spiderwort, Marigolds, Rosemary, Smartweed, Pineapple Weed, Chamomile, False Roselle, Lavender, Forsythia, Borage Every time I see a spiderwort I think of Pocahontas, the 11-year old Indian girl who save the life of Captain John Smith (see my separate article about them and spiderworts.) Yellow starthistle is an annual that often grows 3 feet or more tall and is branched with winged stems. Both species have bright yellow flowers similar to dandelion, but perennial sowthistle flower bracts are covered with gland-tipped hairs, while marsh sowthistle has smooth flower bracts. Cultural. Unlike other plants in the sagebrush family, absinth wormwood dies back to the root crown each winter, with new shoots emerging each spring. The root system contains a large nutrient reserve capable of sustaining the plant for years. The heads can be singular or in clusters of two to five. Purple loosestrife, a beautiful garden plant with an aggressive nature, first was introduced into North America in the early 1800s. Bromoxynil plus MCPA and Tordon (picloram) also provide good chamomile control. Annual and perennial sowthistle species are not true thistles and control options differ between these weed families. Scientists at the North Dakota Agricultural College (NDAC) recognized leafy spurge could be a problem soon after it was first identified in the state, growing along a Fargo street in 1909. However, some seeds are plumeless and stay in the flower head until winter storms disperse them in blowing snow. Common mullein is a native of Asia but was introduced into the U.S. from Europe and now is common throughout North America. Mowing prior to seed dispersal may limit the amount of seed available for germination. The “poison” in this plant is from a white oil called urushiol found in the phloem that causes an allergic contact dermatitis in about 85 percent of the population. The plant occurs in pastures, croplands, rangelands, roadsides and construction sites but prefers disturbed areas and sites near ditches. Flowering typically occurs from July to September. The root-boring beetle Agrilus hyperici and the leaf bud gall-forming midge Zeuxidiplosis giardi have become established but the effectiveness has been quite variable. Spread of purple loosestrife is primarily by seed, but the plant also can spread vegetatively from stem cuttings. Bull thistle occurs in all 48 contiguous states and most of Canada, but is designated noxious in only a few states. Natural Flowers - Edible Dry Flowers - Tea Making - Infusion - Dish Food Cake Decoration - Culinary Grade Comprehensive selection of Edible Flowers and Edible Petals on the market. Plants bolt during early summer, the second year of growth, to a height of 1 to 4 feet and flower in mid-June. Some taxonomists place these plants in the genius Anthemis. Palmer amaranth young plant and flower stalk courtesy of Alicia Harstad, NDSU. Foliar-applied herbicides must be applied before Palmer amaranth plants are taller than 4 inches. and dog fennel or mayweed chamomile (Anthemis cotula L.), also can become weedy. To date, none have been effective at reducing the weed on a large scale. The flowers are generally purple but rarely a white form is observed. The stem-boring weevil, Microplontus endentulus, feeds on the interior of the stem and produces hollow areas that reduce the vigor of the plant. Chemical. County Listed Noxious Weed: Scentless chamomile only. Canada thistle is the only thistle in North Dakota that has become a cropland pest. Seed pods are 3 to 5 inches long and contain dozens of flat, reddish-brown seeds with tufts of hairs that allow the seed to travel long distances in the wind. Orange hawkweed escaped from landscape plantings, gardens and cemeteries and now occurs throughout the eastern seaboard, into the Midwest, extending west to Minnesota and Iowa and south to Virginia and North Carolina, and has been steadily spreading to the West. Dame’s rocket is a biennial or occasionally short-term perennial herb in the mustard family. The head, or bur, of the flower breaks off and scatters the seeds. However, herbicides at labeled rates for cropland use will not control Russian knapweed. Plumeless thistle tends to be shorter than other noxious biennial thistles and generally reaches 1 to 4 feet tall. Cultural. A native pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. Consult the latest edition of the “North Dakota Weed Control Guide” (W253) and the NDSU Palmer amaranth website for updates on controlling Palmer amaranth infestations. The best control is obtained when picloram is applied following several hard frosts (mid-October). Spotted and diffuse knapweed confined to small, well-defined areas should be pulled by hand or treated with a herbicide as soon as detected to avoid spread of the weed. Both Dalmatian and yellow toadflax are escaped perennial ornamental plants that were introduced in the mid-1800s. A careful follow-up program is necessary to control missed plants and seedlings. Field bindweed is a native of Europe and western Asia and was introduced to this country during colonial days when it was referred to as devilgut. Scotch thistle is a native of Eurasia and has become naturalized in portions of western North America. Even though this common garden flower has been in the U.S. since colonial times, it is now becoming invasive in many areas of the north-central Plains, especially in woody areas.
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